Sunday, December 21, 2014

The Pine Tree Flag

The Pine Tree Flag, sometimes known as the Liberty Tree Flag or the Appeal to Heaven Flag, was one of the flags used during the American Revolutionary War. It was first used as the flag of navy cruisers commissioned under the command of General Washington and the Continental Army, as well as navy vessels of the state of Massachusetts. The flag features a pine tree on a white background with the phrase "An Appeal To Heaven" above it. It was designed by Washington's secretary, Colonel Joseph Reed.

Why a Pine Tree?

The pine tree had long been a symbol of the colonies, and had been used as a part of many flags dating back to the 1680s. Though not as well known as the Boston Tea Party, the Pine Tree Riot of 1772 was one of the more important acts of resistance by the American colonists leading up to the Revolutionary War. (The Pine Tree Riot was against a tax placed on colonists by the British in order to harvest certain pine trees.)

Why An Appeal To Heaven?

The phrase "An Appeal to Heaven" comes from John Locke, whose writings were extremely influential on the thinking of Thomas Jefferson and other leaders of the American Revolution. In particular, the phrase comes from Locke's Second Treatise on Civil Government.  The phrase was much quoted among the colonists, including Patrick Henry in his "Give me Liberty, or give me death" speech.

The phrase refers to one of the justifications for armed resistance to tyrannical governments - that once all Earthly appeals (to the tyrannical government and its legal system) have been exhausted, an appeal to Heaven (God) may be made through resistance and revolution.

This idea is expressed in the Declaration of Independence, where the colonists state that their appeals to the British authorities failed, and therefore they were now "appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world" by declaring their independence.

Monday, December 15, 2014

Federalist 69: The Real Character of the Executive

The following is the text of Federalist Paper number 69, published in March of 1788 under the name Publius (the pseudonym used by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay). It was almost certainly written by Hamilton, and addresses the intended role of the President, including the checks and limitations placed upon the power of the presidency. 


The Real Character of the Executive

To the People of the State of New York:

I PROCEED now to trace the real characters of the proposed Executive, as they are marked out in the plan of the convention. This will serve to place in a strong light the unfairness of the representations which have been made in regard to it.

The first thing which strikes our attention is, that the executive authority, with few exceptions, is to be vested in a single magistrate. This will scarcely, however, be considered as a point upon which any comparison can be grounded; for if, in this particular, there be a resemblance to the king of Great Britain, there is not less a resemblance to the Grand Seignior, to the khan of Tartary, to the Man of the Seven Mountains, or to the governor of New York.

That magistrate is to be elected for four years; and is to be re-eligible as often as the people of the United States shall think him worthy of their confidence. In these circumstances there is a total dissimilitude between him and a king of Great Britain, who is an hereditary monarch, possessing the crown as a patrimony descendible to his heirs forever; but there is a close analogy between him and a governor of New York, who is elected for three years, and is re-eligible without limitation or intermission. If we consider how much less time would be requisite for establishing a dangerous influence in a single State, than for establishing a like influence throughout the United States, we must conclude that a duration of four years for the Chief Magistrate of the Union is a degree of permanency far less to be dreaded in that office, than a duration of three years for a corresponding office in a single State.

The President of the United States would be liable to be impeached, tried, and, upon conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes or misdemeanors, removed from office; and would afterwards be liable to prosecution and punishment in the ordinary course of law. The person of the king of Great Britain is sacred and inviolable; there is no constitutional tribunal to which he is amenable; no punishment to which he can be subjected without involving the crisis of a national revolution. In this delicate and important circumstance of personal responsibility, the President of Confederated America would stand upon no better ground than a governor of New York, and upon worse ground than the governors of Maryland and Delaware.

The President of the United States is to have power to return a bill, which shall have passed the two branches of the legislature, for reconsideration; and the bill so returned is to become a law, if, upon that reconsideration, it be approved by two thirds of both houses. The king of Great Britain, on his part, has an absolute negative upon the acts of the two houses of Parliament. The disuse of that power for a considerable time past does not affect the reality of its existence; and is to be ascribed wholly to the crown's having found the means of substituting influence to authority, or the art of gaining a majority in one or the other of the two houses, to the necessity of exerting a prerogative which could seldom be exerted without hazarding some degree of national agitation. The qualified negative of the President differs
widely from this absolute negative of the British sovereign; and tallies exactly with the revisionary authority of the council of revision of this State, of which the governor is a constituent part. In this respect the power of the President would exceed that of the governor of New York, because the former would possess, singly, what the latter shares with the chancellor and judges; but it would be precisely the same with that of the governor of Massachusetts, whose constitution, as to this article, seems to have been the original from which the convention have copied.

The President is to be the "commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual service of the United States. He is to have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment; to recommend to the consideration of Congress such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; to convene, on extraordinary occasions, both houses of the legislature, or either of them, and, in case of disagreement between them with respect to the time of adjournment, to adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; to take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and to commission all officers of the United States." In most of these particulars, the power of the President will resemble equally that of the king of Great Britain and of the governor of New York. The most material points of difference are these:--First. The President will have only the occasional command of such part of the militia of the nation as by legislative provision may be called into the actual service of the Union. The king of Great Britain and the governor of New York have at all times the entire command of all the militia within their several jurisdictions. In this article, therefore, the power of the President would be inferior to that of either the monarch or the governor. Second. The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. In this respect his authority would be nominally the same with that of the king of Great Britain, but in substance much inferior to it. It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces, as first General and admiral of the Confederacy; while that of the British king extends to the declaring of war and to the raising and regulating of fleets and armies--all which, by the Constitution under consideration, would appertain to the legislature.(1) The governor of New York, on the other hand, is by the constitution of the State vested only with the command of its militia and navy. But the constitutions of several of the States expressly declare their governors to be commanders-in-chief, as well of the army as navy; and it may well be a question, whether those of New Hampshire and Massachusetts, in particular, do not, in this instance, confer larger powers upon their respective governors, than could be claimed by a President of the United States. Third. The power of the President, in respect to pardons, would extend to all cases, except those of impeachment. The governor of New York may pardon in all cases, even in those of impeachment, except for treason and murder. Is not the power of the governor, in this article, on a calculation of political consequences, greater than that of the President? All conspiracies and plots against the government, which have not been matured into actual treason, may be screened from punishment of every kind, by the interposition of the prerogative of pardoning. If a governor of New York, therefore, should be at the head of any such conspiracy, until the design had been ripened into actual hostility he could insure his accomplices and adherents an entire impunity. A President of the Union, on the other hand, though he may even pardon treason, when prosecuted in the ordinary course of law, could shelter no offender, in any degree, from the effects of impeachment and conviction. Would not the prospect of a total indemnity for all the preliminary steps be a greater temptation to undertake and persevere in an enterprise against the public liberty, than the mere prospect of an exemption from death and confiscation, if the final execution of the design, upon an actual appeal to arms, should miscarry? Would this last expectation have any influence at all, when the probability was computed, that the person who was to afford that exemption might himself be involved in the consequences of the measure, and might be incapacitated by his agency in it from affording the desired impunity? The better to judge of this matter, it will be necessary to recollect, that, by the proposed Constitution, the offense of treason is limited "to levying war upon the United States, and adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort"; and that by the laws of New York it is confined within similar bounds. Fourth. The President can only adjourn the national legislature in the single case of disagreement about the time of adjournment. The British monarch may prorogue or even dissolve the Parliament. The governor of New York may also prorogue the legislature of this State for a limited time; a power which, in certain situations, may be employed to very important purposes.

The President is to have power, with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the senators present concur. The king of Great Britain is the sole and absolute representative of the nation in all foreign transactions. He can of his own accord make treaties of peace, commerce, alliance, and of every other description. It has been insinuated, that his authority in this respect is not conclusive, and that his conventions with foreign powers are subject to the revision, and stand in need of the ratification, of Parliament. But I believe this doctrine was never heard of, until it was broached upon the present occasion. Every jurist(2) of that kingdom, and every other man acquainted with its Constitution, knows, as an established fact, that the prerogative of making treaties exists in the crown in its utmost plentitude; and that the compacts entered into by the royal authority have the most complete legal validity and perfection, independent of any other sanction. The Parliament, it is true, is sometimes seen employing itself in altering the existing laws to conform them to the stipulations in a new treaty; and this may have possibly given birth to the imagination, that its co-operation was necessary to the obligatory efficacy of the treaty. But this parliamentary interposition proceeds from a different cause: from the necessity of adjusting a most artificial and intricate system of revenue and commercial laws, to the changes made in them by the operation of the treaty; and of adapting new provisions and precautions to the new state of things, to keep the machine from running into disorder. In this respect, therefore, there is no comparison between the intended power of the President and the actual power of the British sovereign. The one can perform alone what the other can do only with the concurrence of a branch of the legislature. It must be admitted, that, in this instance, the power of the federal Executive would exceed that of any State Executive. But this arises naturally from the sovereign power which relates to treaties. If the Confederacy were to be dissolved, it would become a question, whether the Executives of the several States were not solely invested with that delicate and important prerogative.

The President is also to be authorized to receive ambassadors and other public ministers. This, though it has been a rich theme of declamation, is more a matter of dignity than of authority. It is a circumstance which will be without consequence in the administration of the government; and it was far more convenient that it should be arranged in this manner, than that there should be a necessity of convening the legislature, or one of its branches, upon every arrival of a foreign minister, though it were merely to take the place of a departed predecessor.

The President is to nominate, and, with the advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint ambassadors and other public ministers, judges of the Supreme Court, and in general all officers of the United States established by law, and whose appointments are not otherwise provided for by the Constitution. The king of Great Britain is emphatically and truly styled the fountain of honor. He not only appoints to all offices, but can create offices. He can confer titles of nobility at pleasure; and has the disposal of an immense number of church preferments. There is evidently a great inferiority in the power of the President, in this
particular, to that of the British king; nor is it equal to that of the governor of New York, if we are to interpret the meaning of the constitution of the State by the practice which has obtained under it. The power of appointment is with us lodged in a council, composed of the governor and four members of the Senate, chosen by the Assembly. The governor claims, and has frequently exercised, the right of nomination, and is entitled to a casting vote in the appointment. If he really has the right of nominating, his authority is in this respect equal to that of the President, and exceeds it in the article of the casting vote. In the national government, if the Senate should be divided, no appointment could be made; in the government of New York, if the council should be divided, the governor can turn the scale, and confirm his own nomination.(3) If we compare the publicity which must necessarily attend the mode of appointment by the President and an entire branch of the national legislature, with the privacy in the mode of appointment by the governor of New York, closeted in a secret apartment with at most four, and frequently with only two persons; and if we at the same time consider how much more easy it must be to influence the small number of which a council of appointment consists, than the considerable number of which the national Senate would consist, we cannot hesitate to pronounce that the power of the chief magistrate of this State, in the disposition of offices, must, in practice, be greatly superior to that of the Chief Magistrate of the Union.

Hence it appears that, except as to the concurrent authority of the President in the article of treaties, it would be difficult to determine whether that magistrate would, in the aggregate, possess more or less power than the Governor of New York. And it appears yet more unequivocally, that there is no pretense for the parallel which has been attempted between him and the king of Great Britain. But to render the contrast in this respect still more striking, it may be of use to throw the principal circumstances of dissimilitude into a closer group.

The President of the United States would be an officer elected by the people for four years; the king of Great Britain is a perpetual and hereditary prince. The one would be amenable to personal punishment and disgrace; the person of the other is sacred and inviolable. The one would have a qualified negative upon the acts of the legislative body; the other has an absolute negative. The one would have a right to command the military and naval forces of the nation; the other, in addition to this right, possesses that of declaring war, and of raising and regulating fleets and armies by his own authority. The one would have a concurrent power with a branch of the legislature in the formation of treaties; the other is the sole possessor of the power of making treaties. The one would have a like concurrent authority in appointing to offices; the other is the sole author of all appointments. The one can confer no privileges whatever; the other can make denizens of aliens, noblemen of commoners; can erect corporations with all the rights incident to corporate bodies. The one can prescribe no rules concerning the commerce or currency of the nation; the other is in several respects the arbiter of commerce, and in this capacity can establish markets and fairs, can regulate weights and measures, can lay embargoes for a limited time, can coin money, can authorize or prohibit the circulation of foreign coin. The one has no particle of spiritual jurisdiction; the other is the supreme head and governor of the national church! What answer shall we give to those who would persuade us that things so unlike resemble each other? The same that ought to be given to those who tell us that a government, the whole power of which would be in the hands of the elective and periodical servants of the people, is an aristocracy, a monarchy, and a despotism.


1. A writer in a Pennsylvania paper, under the signature of TAMONY, has asserted that the king of Great Britain owes his prerogative as commander-in-chief to an annual mutiny bill. The truth is, on the contrary, that his prerogative, in this respect, is immemorial, and was only disputed, "contrary to all reason and precedent," as Blackstone vol. i., page 262, expresses it, by the Long Parliament of Charles I. but by the statute the 13th of Charles II., chap. 6, it was declared to be in the king alone, for that the sole supreme government and command of the militia within his Majesty's realms and dominions, and of all forces by sea and land, and of all forts and places of strength, EVER WAS AND IS the undoubted right of his Majesty and his royal predecessors, kings and queens of England, and that both or either house of Parliament cannot nor ought to pretend to the same.

2. Vide Blackstone's Commentaries, Vol I., p. 257.

3. Candor, however, demands an acknowledgment that I do not think the claim of the governor to a right of nomination well founded. Yet it is always justifiable to reason from the practice of a government, till its propriety has been constitutionally questioned. And independent of this claim, when we take into view the other considerations, and pursue them through all their consequences, we shall be inclined to draw much the same conclusion.

***All the Federalist Papers can be found on the Project Gutenburg website
Return to the main page of #HistoryHub.

Thursday, December 11, 2014

Review: Swiss Army Knife "Hiker"

"Hiker" by Victorinox

When I was 12, I received one of my favorite Christmas presents ever - my very own Swiss Army Knife. I used that knife throughout my Boy Scout years and into my college days, before I finally lost it. I never did figure out what happened to it.

I still carry a Swiss Army Knife everyday. My current one is the Hiker model by Victorinox, which I've had since 2010. Its tools include two knife blades (small/large), two straight-edge screwdrivers (small/regular), Phillips screwdriver, can opener, bottle opener, wire stripper, wood saw, reamer (awl) with eyelet, tweezers, and toothpick. It also has a ring to attach it to a keychain or lanyard. It also has the "secret compartment" found on many Swiss army knives where you can store a sewing needle or pin.

Many people never realize the needle storage compartment exists, but it is an intentional design feature by Victorinox, specifically to hold a needle or pin. To find it, simply open up the Phillips screwdriver and look for the tiny hole in the red casing near the base of the screwdriver. A sewing needle or pin fits perfectly, though I find a pin works better because its head makes it easier to insert and get out. You have to supply the needle or pin.

A Swiss Army Knife is much more than just a pocket knife. It is a fully-functioning multi-tool. I've had the Victorinox Tinker models in the past, and now carry the Hiker (which is the Tinker plus a wood saw). I've used them many times for all sorts of repair jobs, from replacing door knobs to putting up bird houses, and they have proved quite rugged and durable. The screwdrivers on mine get used as much as the knife blades do, and have always done the job. The wood saw is the best on any multi-tool I've ever seen, and is VERY sharp, easily handling wood up to an inch thick.

The knife blades come quite sharp too, and are easy to maintain. I am not an expert knife-sharpener, putting my skills more in the "intermediate" range. However, Victorinox does sell a sharpener specifically designed for their knives, and I am able to keep an excellent edge on mine with it.

Speaking of the knife blades: I use my large blade for most day-to-day tasks, saving the smaller blade for more detailed work. Other folks use the smaller blade for daily tasks, and keep the larger blade clean to cut food. How you use them is up to you.

One advantage of a Swiss Army Knife is that most folks don't find it as threatening or intimidating as a regular knife. This is especially useful in an urban environment where folks may not be used to people carrying knives. A Swiss Army Knife may work well as part of a "gray-man disguise."

Of course, know the laws and regulations for knives in your area.

Saturday, November 29, 2014

Review: Condor Bushlore
I've owned my  Condor Tool and Knife Bushlore (4.375-inch drop point blade, with walnut handle and leather sheath) for almost two years now, and I absolutely love it. I think it is a fantastic heavy-duty bushknife - what some might call a "beater." Mine came quite sharp out-of-the-box (but not razor-sharp) and has retained its edge very well. I have this knife in my main survival (BOB) pack.

Overall length of the Bushlore is just over 9 inches. The full-tang blade is 1075 carbon steel, 2 mm thick. The leather sheath that comes with it is very thick, high-quality leather, well-stitched and proving to be quite durable.

I would highly recommend this to any prepper or bushcrafter without hesitation. It is currently (Nov. 16) available from Amazon for about $39 with FREE shipping.

Here is a video review of the Condor Bushlore by a You Tuber I recently started following (be sure to check out his channel).

Condor Bushlore Knife Review Survival Gear by Survival On Purpose

Thursday, November 27, 2014

Ronald Reagan's 1981 Thanksgiving Proclamation

Date: November 12, 1981
By: Ronald Reagan

America has much for which to be thankful. The unequaled freedom enjoyed by our citizens has provided a harvest of plenty to this nation throughout its history. In keeping with America's heritage, one day each year is set aside for giving thanks to god for all of His blessings. On this day of thanksgiving, it is appropriate that we recall the first thanksgiving, celebrated in the autumn of 1621. After surviving a bitter winter, the Pilgrims planted and harvested a bountiful crop. After the harvest they gathered their families together and joined in celebration and prayer with the Native Americans who had taught them so much. Clearly our forefathers were thankful not only for the material well being of their harvest but for this abundance of goodwill as well.

In this spirit, Thanksgiving has become a day when Americans extend a helping hand to the less fortunate. Long before there was a government welfare program, this spirit of voluntary giving was ingrained in the American character. Americans have always understood that, truly, one must give in order to receive. This should be a day of giving as well as a day of thanks. As we celebrate Thanksgiving in 1981, we should reflect on the full meaning of this day as we enjoy the fellowship that is so much a part of the holiday festivities. Searching our hearts, we should ask what we can do sass individuals to demonstrate our gratitude to God for all He has done. Such reflection can only add to the significance of this precious day of remembrance.

Let us recommit ourselves to that devotion to God and family that has played such an important role in making this a great Nation, and which will be needed as a source of strength if we are to remain a great people. Now, Therefore, I, Ronald Reagan, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim Thursday, November 26, 1981, as Thanksgiving Day. In witness where of, I have here unto set my hand this twelfth day of November, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and eighty-one, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and sixth. 

Review: Our Presidents ROCK!

"If you don't know where you've been, how can you know where you're going? Our Presidents ROCK!, by Juliette Turner, offers an important contribution to the understanding of our past by making the fascinating history of the American Presidency accessible and enjoyable for young readers." -- Donald Rumsfeld, former U.S. Secretary of Defense

The above quote from Donald Rumsfeld is included on the front cover of Juliette Turner's newest book, Our Presidents ROCK!. Mr. Rumsfeld is correct, both in his assertion of the importance of knowing history, and in his opinion that Ms. Turner's book makes the history of  the American Presidency "accessible and enjoyable for young readers." I would only expand on his comment by pointing out that her book, though aimed at young people, is also suitable, interesting, and enjoyable reading for adults, too! After all, I am a 47-year-old with a college degree in History, and I loved the book, and even learned from it.

Although aimed at a younger audience, the material presented is in no way "watered-down," and it's not just a trivia book filled with random facts. Its 316 pages are information-packed, and cover every President from Washington to Obama. It is the layout and graphics of the book that are designed to appeal to young adults.

Each President receives about six to eight pages of coverage. which is presented into quick, easy-to-understand sections:

The Bottom Line: a two-sentence coverage of the president's accomplishments during his time in office.

What Were They Thinking?: a quick explanation of the viewpoints of every president, from his views on debt and foreign relations to his views on social issues and war.

Why Should I Care?: tells you why it is important to learn about and understand the policies of that president in particular.

Breakin' It Down: An overview of each president's life, before and during his presidency.

Presidency: Information about his actual time in office - from policies to landmark accomplishments to important events affecting his presidency.

Quick Facts: lots of interesting tidbits, including election results, quotes from speeches, the president's thoughts regarding the Constitution, fast stats on each president, and details on each president's personality, among other information. I especially like the Presidential Times, a one or two page section for each president made to look like a newspaper covering events during his presidency.

What I really like about Juliette Turner's book is that she makes history come alive by showing why it is important for us to understand. She isn't just presenting facts about some seemingly unimportant, irrelevant past, but instead shows how the history of the American Presidency is important and relevant to us today.

Juliette Turner (on Twitter: @JulietteTurner) is a sixteen year-old historian, and the National Youth Director for Constituting America. She previously wrote the book, Our Constitution ROCKS!

I highly recommend both of her books as gifts for any teens on your Christmas or Hanukkah list. And if you are looking for an interesting and useful book on American history, pick up a copy for yourself. You won't be disappointed, and you will learn a lot.

Monday, November 17, 2014

First Inaugural Address of Ronald Reagan

President Ronald Reagan

Senator Hatfield, Mr. Chief Justice, Mr. President, Vice President Bush, Vice President Mondale, Senator Baker, Speaker O'Neill, Reverend Moomaw, and my fellow citizens: To a few of us here today, this is a solemn and most momentous occasion; and yet, in the history of our Nation, it is a commonplace occurrence. The orderly transfer of authority as called for in the Constitution routinely takes place as it has for almost two centuries and few of us stop to think how unique we really are. In the eyes of many in the world, this every-four-year ceremony we accept as normal is nothing less than a miracle.

Mr. President, I want our fellow citizens to know how much you did to carry on this tradition. By your gracious cooperation in the transition process, you have shown a watching world that we are a united people pledged to maintaining a political system which guarantees individual liberty to a greater degree than any other, and I thank you and your people for all your help in maintaining the continuity which is the bulwark of our Republic.

The business of our nation goes forward. These United States are confronted with an economic affliction of great proportions. We suffer from the longest and one of the worst sustained inflations in our national history. It distorts our economic decisions, penalizes thrift, and crushes the struggling young and the fixed- income elderly alike. It threatens to shatter the lives of millions of our people.

Idle industries have cast workers into unemployment, causing human misery and personal indignity. Those who do work are denied a fair return for their labor by a tax system which penalizes successful achievement and keeps us from maintaining full productivity.

But great as our tax burden is, it has not kept pace with public spending. For decades, we have piled deficit upon deficit, mortgaging our future and our children's future for the temporary convenience of the present. To continue this long trend is to guarantee tremendous social, cultural, political, and economic upheavals.

You and I, as individuals, can, by borrowing, live beyond our means, but for only a limited period of time. Why, then, should we think that collectively, as a nation, we are not bound by that same limitation?

We must act today in order to preserve tomorrow. And let there be no misunderstanding--we are going to begin to act, beginning today.

The economic ills we suffer have come upon us over several decades. They will not go away in days, weeks, or months, but they will go away. They will go away because we, as Americans, have the capacity now, as we have had in the past, to do whatever needs to be done to preserve this last and greatest bastion of freedom.

In this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem.

From time to time, we have been tempted to believe that society has become too complex to be managed by self-rule, that government by an elite group is superior to government for, by, and of the people. But if no one among us is capable of governing himself, then who among us has the capacity to govern someone else? All of us together, in and out of government, must bear the burden. The solutions we seek must be equitable, with no one group singled out to pay a higher price.

We hear much of special interest groups. Our concern must be for a special interest group that has been too long neglected. It knows no sectional boundaries or ethnic and racial divisions, and it crosses political party lines. It is made up of men and women who raise our food, patrol our streets, man our mines and our factories, teach our children, keep our homes, and heal us when we are sick--professionals, industrialists, shopkeepers, clerks, cabbies, and truckdrivers. They are, in short, "We the people," this breed called Americans.

Well, this administration's objective will be a healthy, vigorous, growing economy that provides equal opportunity for all Americans, with no barriers born of bigotry or discrimination. Putting America back to work means putting all Americans back to work. Ending inflation means freeing all Americans from the terror of runaway living costs. All must share in the productive work of this "new beginning" and all must share in the bounty of a revived economy. With the idealism and fair play which are the core of our system and our strength, we can have a strong and prosperous America at peace with itself and the world.

So, as we begin, let us take inventory. We are a nation that has a government--not the other way around. And this makes us special among the nations of the Earth. Our Government has no power except that granted it by the people. It is time to check and reverse the growth of government which shows signs of having grown beyond the consent of the governed.

It is my intention to curb the size and influence of the Federal establishment and to demand recognition of the distinction between the powers granted to the Federal Government and those reserved to the States or to the people. All of us need to be reminded that the Federal Government did not create the States; the States created the Federal Government.

Now, so there will be no misunderstanding, it is not my intention to do away with government. It is, rather, to make it work-work with us, not over us; to stand by our side, not ride on our back. Government can and must provide opportunity, not smother it; foster productivity, not stifle it.

If we look to the answer as to why, for so many years, we achieved so much, prospered as no other people on Earth, it was because here, in this land, we unleashed the energy and individual genius of man to a greater extent than has ever been done before. Freedom and the dignity of the individual have been more available and assured here than in any other place on Earth. The price for this freedom at times has been high, but we have never been unwilling to pay that price.

It is no coincidence that our present troubles parallel and are proportionate to the intervention and intrusion in our lives that result from unnecessary and excessive growth of government. It is time for us to realize that we are too great a nation to limit ourselves to small dreams. We are not, as some would have us believe, loomed to an inevitable decline. I do not believe in a fate that will all on us no matter what we do. I do believe in a fate that will fall on us if we do nothing. So, with all the creative energy at our command, let us begin an era of national renewal. Let us renew our determination, our courage, and our strength. And let us renew; our faith and our hope.

We have every right to dream heroic dreams. Those who say that we are in a time when there are no heroes just don't know where to look. You can see heroes every day going in and out of factory gates. Others, a handful in number, produce enough food to feed all of us and then the world beyond. You meet heroes across a counter--and they are on both sides of that counter. There are entrepreneurs with faith in themselves and faith in an idea who create new jobs, new wealth and opportunity. They are individuals and families whose taxes support the Government and whose voluntary gifts support church, charity, culture, art, and education. Their patriotism is quiet but deep. Their values sustain our national life.

I have used the words "they" and "their" in speaking of these heroes. I could say "you" and "your" because I am addressing the heroes of whom I speak--you, the citizens of this blessed land. Your dreams, your hopes, your goals are going to be the dreams, the hopes, and the goals of this administration, so help me God.

We shall reflect the compassion that is so much a part of your makeup. How can we love our country and not love our countrymen, and loving them, reach out a hand when they fall, heal them when they are sick, and provide opportunities to make them self- sufficient so they will be equal in fact and not just in theory?

Can we solve the problems confronting us? Well, the answer is an unequivocal and emphatic "yes." To paraphrase Winston Churchill, I did not take the oath I have just taken with the intention of presiding over the dissolution of the world's strongest economy.

In the days ahead I will propose removing the roadblocks that have slowed our economy and reduced productivity. Steps will be taken aimed at restoring the balance between the various levels of government. Progress may be slow--measured in inches and feet, not miles--but we will progress. Is it time to reawaken this industrial giant, to get government back within its means, and to lighten our punitive tax burden. And these will be our first priorities, and on these principles, there will be no compromise.

On the eve of our struggle for independence a man who might have been one of the greatest among the Founding Fathers, Dr. Joseph Warren, President of the Massachusetts Congress, said to his fellow Americans, "Our country is in danger, but not to be despaired of.... On you depend the fortunes of America. You are to decide the important questions upon which rests the happiness and the liberty of millions yet unborn. Act worthy of yourselves."

Well, I believe we, the Americans of today, are ready to act worthy of ourselves, ready to do what must be done to ensure happiness and liberty for ourselves, our children and our children's children.

And as we renew ourselves here in our own land, we will be seen as having greater strength throughout the world. We will again be the exemplar of freedom and a beacon of hope for those who do not now have freedom.

To those neighbors and allies who share our freedom, we will strengthen our historic ties and assure them of our support and firm commitment. We will match loyalty with loyalty. We will strive for mutually beneficial relations. We will not use our friendship to impose on their sovereignty, for or own sovereignty is not for sale.

As for the enemies of freedom, those who are potential adversaries, they will be reminded that peace is the highest aspiration of the American people. We will negotiate for it, sacrifice for it; we will not surrender for it--now or ever.

Our forbearance should never be misunderstood. Our reluctance for conflict should not be misjudged as a failure of will. When action is required to preserve our national security, we will act. We will maintain sufficient strength to prevail if need be, knowing that if we do so we have the best chance of never having to use that strength.

Above all, we must realize that no arsenal, or no weapon in the arsenals of the world, is so formidable as the will and moral courage of free men and women. It is a weapon our adversaries in today's world do not have. It is a weapon that we as Americans do have. Let that be understood by those who practice terrorism and prey upon their neighbors.

I am told that tens of thousands of prayer meetings are being held on this day, and for that I am deeply grateful. We are a nation under God, and I believe God intended for us to be free. It would be fitting and good, I think, if on each Inauguration Day in future years it should be declared a day of prayer.

This is the first time in history that this ceremony has been held, as you have been told, on this West Front of the Capitol. Standing here, one faces a magnificent vista, opening up on this city's special beauty and history. At the end of this open mall are those shrines to the giants on whose shoulders we stand.

Directly in front of me, the monument to a monumental man: George Washington, Father of our country. A man of humility who came to greatness reluctantly. He led America out of revolutionary victory into infant nationhood. Off to one side, the stately memorial to Thomas Jefferson. The Declaration of Independence flames with his eloquence.

And then beyond the Reflecting Pool the dignified columns of the Lincoln Memorial. Whoever would understand in his heart the meaning of America will find it in the life of Abraham Lincoln.

Beyond those monuments to heroism is the Potomac River, and on the far shore the sloping hills of Arlington National Cemetery with its row on row of simple white markers bearing crosses or Stars of David. They add up to only a tiny fraction of the price that has been paid for our freedom.

Each one of those markers is a monument to the kinds of hero I spoke of earlier. Their lives ended in places called Belleau Wood, The Argonne, Omaha Beach, Salerno and halfway around the world on Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Pork Chop Hill, the Chosin Reservoir, and in a hundred rice paddies and jungles of a place called Vietnam.

Under one such marker lies a young man--Martin Treptow--who left his job in a small town barber shop in 1917 to go to France with the famed Rainbow Division. There, on the western front, he was killed trying to carry a message between battalions under heavy artillery fire.

We are told that on his body was found a diary. On the flyleaf under the heading, "My Pledge," he had written these words: "America must win this war. Therefore, I will work, I will save, I will sacrifice, I will endure, I will fight cheerfully and do my utmost, as if the issue of the whole struggle depended on me alone."

The crisis we are facing today does not require of us the kind of sacrifice that Martin Treptow and so many thousands of others were called upon to make. It does require, however, our best effort, and our willingness to believe in ourselves and to believe in our capacity to perform great deeds; to believe that together, with God's help, we can and will resolve the problems which now confront us.

And, after all, why shouldn't we believe that? We are Americans. God bless you, and thank you.


As televised live on C-SPAN:

Saturday, November 15, 2014

150 Tips for Saving Money, Energy, Water, and Other Resources

Ten General "Common Sense" Tips

1 - Turn off lights when not in a room

2 - Turn off radios, TVs and/or DVD players when not being used

3 - Unplug battery chargers when not being used

4 - Unplug unnecessary clocks, kitchen gadgets and so forth

5 - Set thermostats lower in the winter (wear sweaters, throw an extra blanket on the bed)

6 - Set thermostats higher in summer (electric fans can make you feel five degrees cooler)

7 - Take quick showers (less hot water used = less energy used)

8 - Buy less stuff - avoid impulse purchases

9 - Buy less stuff - go for quality over quantity

10 - Buy less stuff - shop with lists and pay cash only

Twenty-Eight Tips to Save Gasoline

These tips are from my essay Three Changes to Save Big on Gasoline.

11 - Make sure your tires are properly inflated (check weekly).

12 - Check tire rotation & balance (every six months).

13 - Change oil & oil filter (typically every 3000 - 5000 miles).

14 - Change the air filter (yearly or as needed).

15 - Service the fuel injection system (yearly or according to owner's manual).

16 - Change the fuel filter (yearly or as needed).

17 - Get a tune-up (yearly or according to owner's manual).

18 - Service the transmission (yearly or according to owner's manual).

19 - Replace faulty emissions components and oxygen sensor (as needed).

20 - Have front end aligned (as needed).

21 - Leave early enough so that you don't have to rush to get where you are going.

22 - Don't speed. Drive at least five mph under the speed limit & never exceed 55 mph.

23 - Use cruise control whenever possible.

24 - Drive evenly. Avoid jack-rabbit starts & sudden stops. Don't weave in & out of traffic.

25 - Whenever possible, don't accelerate uphill and coast downhill.

26 - Avoid rush-hour traffic whenever possible to avoid time idling.

27 - Cut off the engine whenever you will be stopped for at least a minute.

28 - Clean out the trunk. Less weight means better gas mileage.

29 - Remove rooftop carriers. Less wind resistance means better gas mileage.

30 - Generally speaking, use the air conditioner only for highway driving (over 45 mph with few stops) and roll your windows down when driving around town (under 45 mph with lots of stops).

31 - Avoid driving whenever possible. Instead walk, bike, or take a bus or train.

32 - Join or start a car pool to work, or consider telecommuting if it is possible for your job.

33 - Share a ride with a neighbor to the market, church or school.

34 - Don't fall for society's obsession with being constantly "on the go." There is nothing wrong with staying at home, and your kids don't have to be enrolled in organized activities every day of the week.

35 - Learn to get much of your entertainment at home. Start a family game night. Get together with the neighbors for a weekend cookout or a video night.

36 - Plan ahead and combine errands so that you make fewer trips.

37 - Use lists & stock up on items you frequently use so that you don't have to make a special trip just to pick up something you forgot or unexpectedly ran out of.

38 - Long commute? Consider getting a job closer to home or moving closer to work.

Consumer Reports: Twenty Free Ways to Save Energy

These twenty ideas come from Consumers Report's 20 free ways to save energy.

39 - Wash clothes in cold water. You might guess that most of the energy used by a washing machine goes into vigorously swishing the clothes around. In fact, about 90 percent of it is spent elsewhere, heating the water for the load. You can save substantially by washing and rinsing at cooler temperatures. Warm water helps the suds to get at the dirt, but cold-water detergents will work effectively for just about everything in the hamper.

40 - Hang it up. Clotheslines aren't just a bit of backyard nostalgia. They really work, given a stretch of decent weather. You spare the energy a dryer would use, and your clothes will smell as fresh as all outdoors without the perfumes in fabric softeners and dryer sheets. You'll also get more useful life out of clothes dried on indoor or outdoor clotheslines--after all, dryer lint is nothing but your wardrobe in the process of wearing out.

41 - Don't overdry your laundry. Clothes will need less ironing and hold up better if you remove them from the dryer while they're still just a bit damp. If you are in the market for a dryer, look for one with a moisture sensor; it will be less likely than thermostat-equipped models to run too long.

42 - Let the dishwasher do the work. Don't bother pre-rinsing dishes with the idea that your dishwasher will work less hard. Consumer Reports has found that this added step can waste 20 gallons of heated water a day. All you need to do is scrape off leftover food. Enzyme-based detergents will help make sure the dishes emerge spotless.

43 - Put your PC to sleep. Keep your computer and its monitor in sleep mode rather than leaving them on around the clock. You stand to use 80 percent less electricity, which over the course of a year could have the effect of cutting CO2 emissions by up to 1,250 pounds, according to EPA estimates.

44 - Turn down the heat in the winter, and turn down the cool in the summer. Lower the thermostat 5° to 10° F when you're sleeping or are out of the house. "A 10° decrease can cut your heating bill by as much as 20 percent," says Jim Nanni, manager of the appliance and home-improvement testing department of Consumer Reports. And before you put on a cotton sweater to ward off a slight chill from the AC in summer, consider that for every degree you raise the thermostat setting, you can expect to cut your cooling costs by at least 3 percent.

45 - A cold hearth for a warmer house. A conventional fireplace draws a small gale out of the room and sends it up the chimney. Assuming the indoor air has been warmed by your central heating system, that means your energy dollars are going up the chimney, too. Instead, consider a direct-vent, sealed-combustion gas fireplace. Consumer Reports has found that those units have an energy efficiency of about 70 percent--and the sight of the flames is a lot more warming than staring at a radiator.

46 - Lower the shades and raise the windows. Not at the same time, of course, but your windows and shades are great tools to help moderate temperatures in the home. Because of central air conditioning, we tend to forget these time-tested, traditional ways of making the house comfortable. Shades are particularly helpful in blocking the sun from west-facing rooms in the afternoon. At night, if the forecast calls for cooler temperatures and low humidity, give the AC a rest. Open windows upstairs and down, and use window fans or a whole-house fan.

47 - Put a spin on home cooling. You can operate a couple of fans with a fraction of the electricity needed for air conditioning, and their cooling effect may make it possible to cut back on AC use.

48 - Take care of your air conditioner, and it will take care of you. Your air conditioner will run more efficiently if you clean or replace its filter every other week during heaviest use. Keep leaves and other debris away from the central air's exterior condenser, and keep the condenser coils clean.

49 - Spend less for hot water. Set the hot water heater at 120° F (or the "low" setting), which is hot enough for most needs. If the tank feels warm to the touch, consider wrapping it with conventional insulation or a blanket made for that purpose. To help conserve the water's heat on its way to the faucets, insulate the plumbing with pipe sleeves; with these, you can raise the end-use temperature by 2° to 4° F.

50 - Think twice before turning on the oven. Heating food in the microwave uses only 20 percent of the energy required by a full-sized oven. And while the second-hand heat from the oven may be welcome in winter, it can put an added load on your air conditioner in warmer months.

51 - Use the right pan. When cooking on the stovetop, pick your pan, then put it on an element or burner that's roughly the same size. You'll use much less energy than you would with a mismatched burner and pan. Steam foods instead of boiling. If you do boil, be sure to put a lid on the pot to make the water come to a boil faster.

52 - Read the label. The Energy Guide label, that is. When you shop for a new appliance, look for the label that gives an estimate of annual energy consumption. To help you make sense of that statistic, the label also states the highest and lowest figures for similar models.

53 - Dust off the Crock-Pot. Slow cooking in a Crock-Pot uses a lot less energy than simmering on the stove.

54 - Clean the coils on your refrigerator using a tapered appliance brush. Your fridge's motor won't have to run as long or as often. In addition to saving energy dollars, you'll prolong the life of the appliance.

55 - Drive steadily--and a bit slower. Hard acceleration and abrupt braking will use more fuel than if you start and slow more moderately. Keeping down your overall speed matters, too, because aerodynamic drag increases dramatically as you drive faster. If you travel at 65 mph instead of 55, you are penalized by lowering your mileage 12.5 percent. If you get your vehicle up to 75 mph, you're losing 25 percent compared with mileage at 55 mph.

56 - Roof racks are a drag. Most cars are reasonably streamlined, but you work against their slipperiness if you carry things on the roof. A loaded roof rack can decrease an SUV's fuel efficiency by 5 percent, and that of a more aerodynamic car by 15 percent or more. Even driving with empty ski racks wastes gas.

57 - Stick with regular. If your car's manufacturer specifies regular gas, don't buy premium with the thought of going faster or operating more efficiently. You'd be spending more with no benefit. Most cars have built-in sensors that adjust the engine timing to the gas in the tank. Even if the owner's manual recommends high-octane gas, ask the dealership about switching to regular.

58 - No loitering. Don't let the engine run at idle any longer than necessary. After starting the car in the morning, begin driving right away; don't let it sit and "warm up" for several minutes. An engine actually warms up faster while driving. With most gasoline engines, it's more efficient to turn off the engine than to idle longer than 30 seconds.

Saving Water Outdoors
The American Water and Energy Savers website has a list of 49 ways to save water. Here are the 16 ways they list for saving water outdoors:

59- Don't over water your lawn. As a general rule, lawns only need watering every 5 to 7 days in the summer and every 10 to 14 days in the winter. A hearty rain eliminates the need for watering for as long as two weeks. Plant it smart, Xeriscape. Xeriscape landscaping is a great way to design, install and maintain both your plantings and irrigation system that will save you time, money and water. For your free copy of "Plant it Smart," an easy-to-use guide to Xeriscape landscaping, contact your Water Management District.

60 - Water lawns during the early morning hours when temperatures and wind speed are the lowest. This reduces losses from evaporation.

61 - Don't water your street, driveway or sidewalk. Position your sprinklers so that your water lands on the lawn and shrubs ... not the paved areas.

62 - Install sprinklers that are the most water-efficient for each use. Micro and drip irrigation and soaker hoses are examples of water-efficient methods of irrigation.

63 - Regularly check sprinkler systems and timing devices to be sure they are operating properly. It is now the law that "anyone who purchases and installs an automatic lawn sprinkler system MUST install a rain sensor device or switch which will override the irrigation cycle of the sprinkler system when adequate rainfall has occurred." To retrofit your existing system, contact an irrigation professional for more information.

64 - Raise the lawn mower blade to at least three inches. A lawn cut higher encourages grass roots to grow deeper, shades the root system and holds soil moisture better than a closely-clipped lawn.

65 - Avoid over fertilizing your lawn. The application of fertilizers increases the need for water. Apply fertilizers which contain slow-release, water-insoluble forms of nitrogen.

66 - Mulch to retain moisture in the soil. Mulching also helps to control weeds that compete with plants for water.

67 - Plant native and/or drought-tolerant grasses, ground covers, shrubs and trees. Once established, they do not need to be watered as frequently and they usually will survive a dry period without any watering. Group plans together based on similar water needs.

68 - Do not hose down your driveway or sidewalk. Use a broom to clean leaves and other debris from these areas. Using a hose to clean a driveway can waste hundreds of gallons of water.

69 - Outfit your hose with a shut-off nozzle which can be adjusted down to fine spray so that water flows only as needed. When finished, "Turn it Off" at the faucet instead of at the nozzle to avoid leaks.

70 - Use hose washers between spigots and water hoses to eliminate leaks.

71 - Do not leave sprinklers or hoses unattended. Your garden hoses can pour out 600 gallons or more in only a few hours, so don't leave the sprinkler running all day. Use a kitchen timer to remind yourself to turn it off.

72 - Check all hoses, connectors and spigots regularly.

73 - Consider using a commercial car wash that recycles water. If you wash your own car, park on the grass to do so.

74 - Avoid the installation of ornamental water features (such as fountains) unless the water is recycled. Locate where there are mineral losses due to evaporation and wind drift.

75 - If you have a swimming pool, consider a new water-saving pool filter. A single back flushing with a traditional filter uses from 180 to 250 gallons or more of water.

Use Your Dryer Efficiently
Drying your clothes outside on a clothes line is the most efficient way to do so, of course. But it is not always possible to dry your clothes outside due to rain, cold weather, or just not having room to do so if you live in an apartment or condo. If you must use a clothes dryer, here are some tips from the Rocky Mountain Institute:

76 - Run only full loads, as small loads are less economical. However, don’t overfill the machine—air needs to be able to circulate around the clothes to properly dry them.

77 - Dry heavy clothes such as cotton towels, jeans, or jackets separately from light clothing, such as underwear and summer clothing. Lightweight fabrics take less time to dry than heavy fabrics, so preventing them from being overheated or dried too long can extend the life of lightweight shirts, pants, and other items.

78 - Dry two or more loads in a row and make use of the hot air already in the dryer from the first load.

79 - Locate your dryer in a heated space. A dryer in a cold or damp basement will have to work harder to get your clothes dry.

80 - Don’t over-dry clothes. If your machine has a moisture sensor, use it. If it has a timer, consider shortening the drying time.

81 - Clean the fluff out of the filter before every load to allow air to circulate better. And regularly clean the lint from vent hoods and lint kits.

82 - Check the outside dryer vent. If it doesn’t close tightly, replace it with one that does. You’ll keep outside air from leaking in, reducing heating and/or cooling bills.

83 - If you have an electric dryer, install a lint kit ($5–10) to vent the exhaust heat and humidity into the house in winter—an easy project. (Exhaust fumes rule out this option for gas dryers.)

Tips For Refrigerators and FreezersAlso from the Rocky Mountain Institute:

84 - Check location: You can boost energy efficiency by making sure your refrigerator is not located in direct sunlight or next to a heat source such as the oven or the dishwasher. Also, be sure that air can circulate freely around condenser coils by leaving a space between the back of the refrigerator and the wall or cabinets.

85 - Keep the fridge top uncluttered: A cluttered fridge top can block the circulation needed to keep the compressor working efficiently.

86 - Check temperature: The refrigerator’s main compartment should be set between 36°F and 40°F and its freezer should be set between 0°F and 5°F. Use a thermometer to check the actual temperature, and adjust the thermostat if necessary. Your refrigerator can use 25 percent more energy if it is set 10°F colder than recommended levels.

87 - Clean condenser coils at least once a year: Unplug the unit and brush off or vacuum the condenser coils (located on the back of the refrigerator or behind the front grill).

88 - Check door seals: Keep door seals or gaskets clean and in good condition. If the seals can’t hold a dollar bill firmly in place, they may need replacement.

Your appliance dealer can get them for you. New seals are not cheap, however, and this may be a good time to decide whether to buy a new, more efficient refrigerator. (This test may not work if your fridge has magnetic seals; in this case, put a bright flashlight inside the refrigerator, dim the lights in the kitchen, and check for light leakage.)

89 - Check “power-saver” switch: Many refrigerators have small heaters in their walls to prevent condensation build-up on the outside. Likewise, many refrigerators have a “power saver” switch that when turned on, will turn this heater off. Ensure that this switch is on if you have the option to do so and you don’t see any condensation on the outside of the fridge.

90 - Defrost as needed: If you have a manual defrost or partial automatic defrost, be sure to defrost the unit regularly. Buildup of ice on the coils makes the compressor run longer, wasting energy.

91 - Cover liquids and foods: If your freezer is almost empty, put in a few water-filled plastic containers. The water will retain the cold much better than empty space, especially when the door is open, and it reduces the need to run the compressor.

92 - Buy a manual defrost freezer: This type of fridge consumes 35–40 percent less electricity than comparable automatic defrost models. They also cost less to run, and they do a better job of storing food, since auto-defrosters remove moisture and can dehydrate food (freezer burn).

93 - Consider chest (top-loading) freezers: They are 10–25 percent more efficient than upright (frontloading) models because they are better insulated and less warm air enters the freezer compartment when the door is open.

94 - The costliest refrigerator is the one you don’t really need but run anyway—you know that old one keeping a six-pack cold in the garage or basement. Retire it from service.

Saving Water Indoors
Here are the 21 ways that the American Water and Energy Savers website lists for saving water indoors:

95 - Never put water down the drain when there may be another use for it such as watering a plant or garden, or cleaning.

96 - Verify that your home is leak-free, because many homes have hidden water leaks. Read your water meter before and after a two-hour period when no water is being used. If the meter does not read exactly the same, there is a leak.

97 - Repair dripping faucets by replacing washers. If your faucet is dripping at the rate of one drop per second, you can expect to waste 2,700 gallons per year which will add to the cost of water and sewer utilities, or strain your septic system.

98 - Check for toilet tank leaks by adding food coloring to the tank. If the toilet is leaking, color will appear within 30 minutes. Check the toilet for worn out, corroded or bent parts. Most replacement parts are inexpensive, readily available and easily installed. (Flush as soon as test is done, since food coloring may stain tank.)

99 - Avoid flushing the toilet unnecessarily. Dispose of tissues, insects and other such waste in the trash rather than the toilet.

100 - Take shorter showers. Replace you showerhead with an ultra-low-flow version. Some units are available that allow you to cut off the flow without adjusting the water temperature knobs.

101 - Use the minimum amount of water needed for a bath by closing the drain first and filling the tub only 1/3 full. Stopper tub before turning water. The initial burst of cold water can be warmed by adding hot water later.

102 - Don't let water run while shaving or washing your face. Brush your teeth first while waiting for water to get hot, then wash or shave after filling the basin.

103 - Retrofit all wasteful household faucets by installing aerators with flow restrictors.

104 - Operate automatic dishwashers and clothes washers only when they are fully loaded or properly set the water level for the size of load you are using.

105 - When washing dishes by hand, fill one sink or basin with soapy water. Quickly rinse under a slow-moving stream from the faucet.

106 - Store drinking water in the refrigerator rather than letting the tap run every time you want a cool glass of water.

107 - Do not use running water to thaw meat or other frozen foods. Defrost food overnight in the refrigerator or by using the defrost setting on your microwave.

108 - Kitchen sink disposals require lots of water to operate properly. Start a compost pile as an alternate method of disposing food waste instead of using a garbage disposal. Garbage disposals also can add 50% to the volume of solids in a septic tank which can lead to malfunctions and maintenance problems.

109 - Consider installing an instant water heater on your kitchen sink so you don't have to let the water run while it heats up. This will reduce heating costs for your household.

110 - Insulate your water pipes. You'll get hot water faster plus avoid wasting water while it heats up.

111 - Never install a water-to-air heat pump or air-conditioning system. Air-to-air models are just as efficient and do not waste water.

112 - Install water softening systems only when necessary. Save water and salt by running the minimum amount of regenerations necessary to maintain water softness. Turn softeners off while on vacation.

113 - Check your pump. If you have a well at your home, listen to see if the pump kicks on and off while the water is not in use. If it does, you have a leak.

114 - When adjusting water temperatures, instead of turning water flow up, try turning it down. If the water is too hot or cold, turn the offender down rather than increasing water flow to balance the temperatures.

115 - If the toilet flush handle frequently sticks in the flush position, letting water run constantly, replace or adjust it.

Some Miscellaneous Tips

116 - Computers: Most homes have one, and sometimes more than one. They can be real energy hogs, particularly if their power management options have not been enabled and they are left on most of the time. The U.S. EPA’s Energy Star website offers instructions on how to enable power management systems for most PCs, and includes links for Mac users. Click here to go to their start page for computer power management.

117 - Paper: Manufacturing a piece of paper requires 10–70 times as much energy as the electricity it takes to print on it. Reduce the amount of paper you use when printing by using narrower margins and a smaller font. The default MS Word settings are 1 inch top & bottom margins and 1.25 inch side margins, with a 12-point font. I've changed my settings to .8 inch margins all around and an 11-point font. It is just as usable and readable as the default settings and does save paper when printing long reports. I also print on both sides of the paper and avoid printing drafts, instead doing any editing on the computer.

118 - Battery Chargers: Battery chargers for cell phones, I-Pods, PDAs and other small electronics are true electricity vampires, sucking electricity from your outlets even when not in use. Always unplug battery chargers when not in use. Or put them on power strips, being sure to turn the power strip off when not in use.

119 - Insulation: When is the last time you've peaked under your house to make sure the insulation is okay? I've seen lots of homes, including my own, where the insulation has fallen down in places. Take a few moments to check yours, and to tack it back up if needed.

120 - Air Leaks: Most homes have multiple places where air leaks occur. Check in your kitchen, bathrooms and utility rooms for places where pipes or wires come into your home. Chances are there are some fairly larges holes under your sinks. Get a can of spray foam insulation and plug those holes. The energy savings will be much greater than the five bucks you spend on the can of spray foam.

121 - Dish-washers vs. Hand-washing: Believe it or not, studies indicate that modern, energy-efficient dishwashers actually use less energy than typical hand-washing does.

122 - Switch to CFLs for Lighting: They use considerable less energy than traditional bulbs. And don't fall for the mercury scare tactics - the CFLs you buy in the stores today contain less than 25% the mercury of the old CFLs on which those concerns were based.

123 - LED Lighting: LEDs use even less electricity than CFLs, and are becoming less expensive and more available everyday. They are still more expensive than CFLs, but if you can afford it you might want to consider LED lighting.

124 - Care For Your Belongings: Taking the time to care for your belongings by keeping them cleaned and properly maintained, as well as safely put away when not in use. This will help them last longer, and will save you money in the long run. Take pride not in how much you have, but rather in how long it lasts.

Avoid Impulse Purchases

Manufacturers spend huge sums of money to get people to buy their products, no matter if they actually need them or not. Retailers spend big bucks to influence people to make impulse purchases. There are several ideas on how to avoid buying stuff you don't need:

125 - Try not to pay attention to TV, radio or print ads. Hit the mute button, turn down the volume or simply don't watch or read the ads.

126 - Leave junk mail unopened. Recycle flyers and leaflets unread.

127 - Don't use shopping as a form of entertainment or a means to relax.

128 - Shop only with lists, and stick to them.

129 - Shop with cash only. Spending cash feels more real than using checks or credit cards, so you are apt to spend less.

130 - If you do find an item you can't do without, wait at least 24 hours before buying it. Chances are the impulse will pass.

General Water Savings Tips
Here are 11 more tips from the American Water and Energy Savers website:

131 - Create an awareness of the need for water conservation among your children. Avoid the purchase of recreational water toys which require a constant stream of water.

132 - Be aware of and follow all water conservation and water shortage rules and restrictions which may be in effect in your area.

133 - Encourage your employer to promote water conservation at the workplace. Suggest that water conservation be put in the employee orientation manual and training program.

134 - Patronize businesses which practice and promote water conservation.

135 - Report all significant water losses (broken pipes, open hydrants, errant sprinklers, abandoned free-flowing wells, etc.) to the property owner, local authorities or your Water Management District.

136 - Encourage your school system and local government to help develop and promote a water conservation ethic among children and adults.

137 - Support projects that will lead to an increased use of reclaimed waste water for irrigation and other uses.

138 - Support efforts and programs to create a concern for water conservation among tourists and visitors to our state. Make sure your visitors understand the need for, and benefits of, water conservation.

139 - Encourage your friends and neighbors to be part of a water conscious community. Promote water conservation in community newsletters, on bulletin boards and by example.

140 - Conserve water because it is the right thing to do. Don't waste water just because someone else is footing the bill such as when you are staying at a hotel.

141 - Try to do one thing each day that will result in a savings of water. Don't worry if the savings is minimal. Every drop counts. And every person can make a difference. So tell your friends, neighbors and co-workers to "Turn it Off" and "Keep it Off".

Nine Final Tips

142 - Eat Locally. Support your local farmers by buying locally grown food. food shipped in from half way around the world consumes huge amounts of fuel and other resources.

143 - Eat Low on the Food Chain. You don't have to become a vegetarian, but eating less meat is not only healthier, but is less wasteful of resources.

144 - Avoid Convenience Items. Most disposable items are extremely wasteful. Such convenience items are often cheaper in the short run, but constantly replacing them actually makes most disposable items much more expensive over the long run. Don't be suckered into using disposable items because they seem cheaper at first glance.

145 - Cancel Magazines, Newspapers and Junk Mail. Cancel magazines and newspapers that you don't read, or that you can read at the library, office or borrow from a friend. Not only will this save paper and energy, but most will send you a refund for the unused portion of your subscription. Reputable catalog companies will remove your name from their mailing lists if you send them a letter asking them to do so. Privacy Rights Clearinghouse has extensive information for how to get off most mailing lists.

146 - Install Energy-Efficient Windows. Not only will they help you save money each month, but you may qualify for a tax credit. Between the monthly savings and the tax credit, payback on the energy-efficient windows I had installed was about 2-1/2 years. Since then the monthly savings is like cash in my pocket. 

147 - Switch to new, energy efficient appliances. If your appliances are more than five years old, new models will offer significant energy savings. 

148 - If your vehicle gets less than 25 mpg, you may want to consider switching to a more fuel efficient model. The fuel savings will be significant, and if gas jumps back up to over $4/gallon you will be glad for the much better mileage.

149 - Many power companies offer their customers free or low-cost energy audits. If your's does, take advantage of it.

150 - Check the insulation under your house. If it is falling down in spots, replace it or at least tack it back up.