Tuesday, February 24, 2015

FDR's D-Day Prayer - "Let Our Hearts Be Stout"

President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered the following prayer over the radio on June 6, 1944, as US and Allied troops invaded Nazi-occupied Europe on D-Day. 

My Fellow Americans:

Last night, when I spoke with you about the fall of Rome, I knew at that moment that troops of the United States and our Allies were crossing the Channel in another and greater operation. It has come to pass with success thus far.

And so, in this poignant hour, I ask you to join with me in prayer:

Almighty God: Our sons, pride of our nation, this day have set upon a mighty endeavor, a struggle to preserve our Republic, our religion, and our civilization, and to set free a suffering humanity.

Lead them straight and true; give strength to their arms, stoutness to their hearts, steadfastness in their faith.

They will need Thy blessings. Their road will be long and hard. For the enemy is strong. He may hurl back our forces. Success may not come with rushing speed, but we shall return again and again; and we know that by Thy grace, and by the righteousness of our cause, our sons will triumph.

They will be sore tried, by night and by day, without rest — until the victory is won. The darkness will be rent by noise and flame. Men’s souls will be shaken with the violences of war.

For these men are lately drawn from the ways of peace. They fight not for the lust of conquest. They fight to end conquest. They fight to liberate. They fight to let justice arise, and tolerance and goodwill among all Thy people. They yearn but for the end of battle, for their return to the haven of home.

Some will never return. Embrace these, Father, and receive them, Thy heroic servants, into Thy kingdom.

And for us at home — fathers, mothers, children, wives, sisters, and brothers of brave men overseas, whose thoughts and prayers are ever with them — help us, Almighty God, to rededicate ourselves in renewed faith in Thee in this hour of great sacrifice.

Many people have urged that I call the nation into a single day of special prayer. But because the road is long and the desire is great, I ask that our people devote themselves in a continuance of prayer. As we rise to each new day, and again when each day is spent, let words of prayer be on our lips, invoking Thy help to our efforts.

Give us strength, too — strength in our daily tasks, to redouble the contributions we make in the physical and the material support of our armed forces.

And let our hearts be stout, to wait out the long travail, to bear sorrows that may come, to impart our courage unto our sons wheresoever they may be.

And, O Lord, give us faith. Give us faith in Thee; faith in our sons; faith in each other; faith in our united crusade. Let not the keeness of our spirit ever be dulled. Let not the impacts of temporary events, of temporal matters of but fleeting moment — let not these deter us in our unconquerable purpose.

With Thy blessing, we shall prevail over the unholy forces of our enemy. Help us to conquer the apostles of greed and racial arrogances. Lead us to the saving of our country, and with our sister nations into a world unity that will spell a sure peace — a peace invulnerable to the scheming of unworthy men. And a peace that will let all of men live in freedom, reaping the just rewards of their honest toil.

Thy will be done, Almighty God.

Amen.


The New Colossus, by Emma Lazarus

In 1903, a sonnet by Emma Lazarus entitled "The New Colossus" was engraved on a bronze plaque and mounted at the base of the Statue of Liberty. Written in 1883, the sonnet contains the now famous words "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free." 

The New Colossus

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.

"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"

Tuesday, February 10, 2015

Eliminate Debt and Build Savings

A closer look at point #5 of my Modern Victory Movement concept. Check out my Introduction to the Modern Victory Movement for an explanation of the concept.

MVM #5 Eliminate Debt and Build Savings

We are facing difficult economic times. It will be especially difficult for the folks who are living paycheck to paycheck, in debt up to their eyeballs and with little or no savings. Debt – whether personal, business or government – is bad. It creates stress and makes one much more vulnerable to economic downturns.

In your personal life, work towards eliminating consumer debt – credit cards, car loans, payday loans, personal loans and installment plans. This will mean you have to put yourself on a budget and stick with it. It will probably mean putting off major purchases, avoiding impulse purchases and denying yourself luxury items. It may mean taking bag lunches to work. It may mean selling your car to get out of the loan. It may mean having a major yard sale to raise some money. It may even mean taking on a second job. It will take some sacrifice to eliminate debt in your life, but the benefits will be more than worth it.

Building some emergency savings will have to be done at the same time. Yard sales are a great way to bring in extra cash to do this. So is a second job in the evenings or on the weekends. Put the money somewhere safe, such as an insured CD or money market account in a stable bank or credit union (do your own homework or check with several companies that offer ratings on the soundness and safety of various financial institutions). Don’t worry about getting top interest. Safety and liquidity is your goal for your emergency savings, not growth.

Once your debt is paid off and you have accumulated some emergency savings, you can then turn your attention to saving for long-range goals such as the purchase of a car, a new home, children’s education, or retirement. Use common sense, avoid overly-risky investments and seek professional advice of someone you can trust.

No investment is perfectly safe. Cash savings are subject to losing value to inflation. Stocks and mutual funds are subject to the ups and downs of the market. Land is subject to property taxes and eminent domain. Converting all your money to gold & silver and burying it in the backyard is subject to thieves. There are no guarantees in life. The best you can do is use reason & common sense, to remain vigilant and to take responsibility for ensuring your own future.

The single most important thing you can do now to survive any future chaos is to start taking responsibility for your own life.

Get back to the financial basics. Make sure you are spending less than you earn. Avoid taking on any new debt - don't use credit cards, payday loans or installment payment plans of any type. Pay cash or make do without. Build some emergency savings. Get on a budget or spending plan and stick to it. Avoid impulse purchases. Scale back your lifestyle sharply. Find the best bargains by doing comparison shopping, use shopping lists, clip coupons.

Why pay off debt if we are headed towards high inflation? It may be true that by waiting to pay off debt, you will be paying it off with cheaper dollars. However, there are other considerations. For one, debt puts you, your family and your assets at risk. Pay off your debts now while you are employed and you run less risk of losing your home or other assets if you become unemployed later.

Debt can be very stressful, especially in difficult times, which can be a real detriment to your health and your ability to make calm decisions at a time when you most need both.

Another reason is that debt can shackle you to your current job and circumstances, when what is really needed at a time like this is freedom and flexibility.

Finally, people tend not to realize how fast interest, late fees and other penalties can add up. You may be paying off your debt later with cheaper dollars, but still be paying more in real terms because of all the added interest and penalties.


Rethink your telecommunications expenses. When I was a child (the 1970s) the only telecommunications expense my family, most families, had was the telephone and that was a land line, of course. TV was over-the-air and free. There were no cell phones. And no one had a computer, much less an Internet connection.

Today, many (most?) families pay for a land line, multiple cell phones, special ring tones, texting privileges, unlimited data plans, cable or satellite TV, extra movie channels, Internet connections, and even satellite radio subscriptions. For most families, huge savings can be found in this bloated budget category.

Mostly, these things are used as distractions, and often are a major contributing factor to obesity and a lack of physical fitness. Replace these distractions with learning, reading, exercise (gardening, hiking, tennis, golf, swimming, etc.) and shared activities such as a family game night.

When I mention cutting back this category, I occasionally hear people whine that they really need a cell phone or Internet connection. Fine. You must decide for yourself what you really need and don't need. But even if you do need a cell phone for emergencies and such, you don't need the latest model of smart phone, special ring tones, texting privileges, unlimited data, or the largest minutes package available. I have a cell phone myself, but it is the basic model that I got for free when I signed up. I don't have texting and I've never paid for a special ring tone. A cell phone may be a necessity for many today, but all the expensive bells and whistles are luxuries you can do without.

The same thing goes for cable or satellite TV. Do you really need to have all the movie channels? Do you really need the HD channels? Do you really need the expanded package with all the sports channels and all the music channels? Or can you get by just fine with the much less expensive basic package? 

Reduce your entertainment expenses. We may hate denying ourselves, but entertainment is a purely optional budget expense. Eliminate it. Learn (or re-learn) how to have a good time for free or nearly free. Start a family game night. Play with your kids in the backyard. Invite friends over for a weekend cook-out or a movie night (with the DVD checked out from your local library for free). Next week they can invite you over.

Read a book (checked out from the library for free, of course) instead of going to a movie. Libraries are a wonderful source of free entertainment. In addition to books and magazines, many libraries today also offer audio books, movies on DVD, music CDs and even board games that you can check out. Many have story times for young children and lecture series for adults you can attend for free.

Give up the vacation away from home. Instead of heading for the beach or Disneyland or wherever, stay home. Spend a week visiting local museums, zoos, botanical gardens, historical sites, parks or wildlife refuges. Go on a picnic or nature hike. Go fishing at a local lake. Play frisbee with your kids in the backyard. Or just relax at home, thinking of all the money you are saving.

Reduce you home energy use. Turn off lights, TVs and electronics whenever you leave a room. Set your thermostat to conserve energy. Replace old appliances with new, energy-efficient models. Super-insulate your house. Consider installing energy efficient windows. Many power companies offer free or low-cost home energy audits for their customers, which can identify weak points in your home's insulation and other energy wasters, along with advice to reduce your energy use. 

Reduce the amount of fuel you use. Make sure your vehicle’s tires are properly inflated and the engine is well-maintained in order to maximize mileage. Drive less by walking, car pooling and using public transportation, as well as planning & combining trips. Consider replacing your old vehicle with a newer one that gets much better mileage. Check out the essay Three Changes to Save Big on Gas.


See Also

Twelve ways to save money - easy and practical money saving ideas

Top Ten Ways To Save Big Money - These ideas may save you hundreds or even thousands of dollars a year.

Monday, February 9, 2015

Eating for Good Health: Anti-Cancer Foods

Estimates are that over 14 million people worldwide develop one of over 100 different forms of cancer each year. There are about 8 million deaths from cancer each year. Most of us know family or friends who have developed cancer at some point in their life. The worldwide economic impact of cancer has been estimated at over $1.5 trillion dollars each year.  So, what can we do to reduce our chances of getting cancer?

The Basics

Studies have concluded that as much as 22% of all cancers are related to the use of tobacco in various forms. So, the first rule in avoiding cancer is DO NOT USE TOBACCO in any form. Other factors to reduce the risk of developing cancer include eating a healthy diet (plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables), being physically active, maintaining a healthy weight, and getting adequate sleep on a consistent basis.

Eating to Prevent Cancer

Generally speaking, eating healthy to avoid cancer includes plenty of fresh fruits & vegetables, fatty fish, consuming meat in moderation, and avoiding fried foods and brunt/charred meats. In addition, many foods, herbs, and spices contain antioxidants, phytochemicals, bioflavonoids, and other anti-cancer compounds that may help reduce the risk of developing cancer. Here is a partial list of anti-cancer foods:

Cruciferous vegetables and leafy greens - broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, bok choy, Chinese cabbage, radishes, rutabagas, kohlrabi, kale, turnip greens & roots, mustard greens, collard greens, swiss chard, spinach, and watercress - contain high amounts of antioxidants and phytochemicals, including glucosinolates, thought to prevent or inhibit the growth of cancer cells.

Berries and grapes - strawberries, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, and red/purple grapes (their bioflavonoids are concentrated in the skins, which give them their color - white, green, or yellow grapes have much less of these compounds). 

Citrus fruits - oranges, tangerines, grapefruits, lemons, and limes - are high in vitamins, bioflavonoids, and other phytochemicals that guard against cancer.

Teas - all teas (black, green, white) contain antioxidants called catechins, which may inhibit cancer cells. Avoid adding sugar to your tea.

Fatty fishes (includes salmon, tuna, trout, herring, sardines, and mackerel) should be consumed 2 - 4 times a week for their omega-3s.

High fiber foods, such as legumes (beans, peas) and whole grains have been shown in various studies to reduce the risk of certain cancers.

Other foods, herbs, spices: Asian mushrooms, tomatoes, celery, parsley, turmeric, garlic, onions, leeks, sweet potatoes, watermelon, cantaloupe, fennel, cumin, ginger, oregano, cayenne peppers, and avocados, are all highly nutritious and contain anti-cancer compounds. 

Mushrooms for Cancer Prevention

The following is a health tip from Dr. Andrew Weil

There are many ways to help lower your risk of cancer; one is to incorporate medicinal mushrooms into your diet and health regime. The four fungi below are great choices to add to your meals, or to take in supplement form as cancer-preventive measures:

  1. Maitake (Grifola frondosa). This delicious mushroom provides anti-cancer, anti-viral and immune-enhancing properties, and may also reduce blood pressure and help regulate blood sugar. Find it dried or fresh in Japanese markets, gourmet stores or upscale supermarkets.
  2. Shiitake (Lentinula edodes). The shiitake has been found to have immune modulating, anti-viral and cholesterol-reducing properties. Certain extracts of shiitake mushrooms are used in Japan as adjunctive therapy to strengthen the immunity of cancer patients during chemotherapy and radiation. Find it - fresh or dried - in grocery stores and Asian markets.
  3. Agaricus (Agaricus blazei). This medicinal mushroom has anti-tumor and anti-viral activity, and is widely used by cancer patients in Japan and Brazil. You can get it as a culture or in extract form from Fungi Perfecti: visit www.fungi.com.
  4. Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum). Too woody and bitter to eat, reishi mushrooms are available in tea bags, capsules and liquid extracts. Animal studies have shown that reishi improves immune function and inhibits the growth of some malignant tumors. It also acts as a natural anti-inflammatory agent.

NOTE: Information provided in this article is not meant to diagnose or treat anyone, but rather is intended only as general advice for healthy living. If you suspect you may have cancer, please consult with a medical doctor as soon as possible


Sources

Foods that Harm, Foods that Heal

8 Indian Spices That Prevent Cancer

www.WebMD.com

Dr. Andrew Weil

www.MayoClinic.org

American Cancer Society


Saturday, February 7, 2015

The American's Creed

The American's Creed, written by William Tyler Page in 1917 as an entry into a patriotic contest to create a concise, but complete statement, of American political faith. Page's entry won, and was approved as a resolution of the United States House of Representatives on April 3, 1918.

The American's Creed is made up of individual lines from America's founding documents, and speeches by various statesmen. 

The American's Creed

I believe in
     the United States of America as a  (1)
     government of the people, by the people, for the people;  (2)
     whose just powers are derived from the consent of the governed;  (3)
     a democracy in a republic;  (4)
     a sovereign Nation of many sovereign States;  (5)
     a perfect union, one and inseparable;  (6)
     established upon those principles of freedom, equality, justice, and humanity for which
         American patriots sacrificed their lives and fortunes. (7)

I therefore believe it is my duty to my country
     to love it;  (8)
     to support its Constitution;  (9)
     to obey its laws;  (10)
     to respect its flag, and  (11)
     to defend it against all enemies.  (12)


Where Each Line Comes From:

(1) Closing words to the Preamble of the Constitution
(2) Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
(3) Declaration of Independence
(4) William Tyler Page
(5) Speech by Daniel Webster
(6) Preamble of the Constitution
(7) Adapted from closing words of Declaration of Independence
(8) Speech by John Hancock
(9) United States Oath of Allegiance
(10) Washington's Farewell Address
(11) War Department Circular from April 14, 1917
(12) Oath of Allegiance


Wednesday, February 4, 2015

Free Resources for Preppers

The following is a list of free resources that preppers and others may find useful:

1) Family Food Storage and Emergency Preparedness (link opens as .pdf), by Debbi D. Koontz, is an informative 12-page booklet in two parts. The first part is a brief introduction to food storage and emergency preparedness in the form of some comments and notes from Ms. Koontz. The second (longer) part is master list of food and supplies, along with notes on each item, that you will want to consider in your plans. {1/26/2016 NOTE: Both the link and the associated website are down. I have no idea when or if they will return.}

2) The Public Library. Perhaps this goes without saying, but public libraries are a fantastic free resource. My small town library has books on gardening, homesteading, food preservation & canning, small engine repair, auto repair, home repair & DIY projects, botany, wildlife identification guides, cookbooks (including for fish & game), first aid, personal finance, and many others of interest to preppers, survivalists, and other folks seeking self-reliance.

Libraries are also a wonderful source of free entertainment. In addition to books and magazines, many libraries today also offer audio books, movies on DVDs, music CDs, and even board games that you can check out. Many have story times for young children and lecture series for adults you can attend for free.

3) Countryside and Small Stock Journal has a free online library of articles (around 200) relating to gardening, homesteading, and self-reliance.

4) Local Parks and Greenways offer lots of opportunities for free exercise, recreation, and family time. My local parks have walking/jogging trails, tennis courts, basketball courts, softball fields, and even a lake for fishing at one one of the parks. Some offer free programs on weekends or during the summer. Hiking greenways is great exercise. Bring along some nature identification guides and turn it into a learning experience.

5) The You Tube Channel for Dr. Bones and Nurse Amy (Joe Alton, MD, and Amy Alton, ARNP) has lots of videos on first aid and medical issues. The Altons are the authors of The Survival Medicine Handbook.

6) The Prepper Website is a great resource that I think of as "the Drudge Report for Preppers" - a collection of links to articles, blog posts, videos, and other information of interest to preppers, survivalist, and self-reliance folks. It is updated daily.

7) Totally Homestead is a website which collects links to recent posts on a large number of homesteading websites.

8) Cooperative Extension Offices are an agency of the US Agriculture Department, with local offices in every county in the United States. They are a great resource of free information, and free or low-cost services. Local offices can provide garden planting times specific to your area, soil testing, canning classes, and other information and services. Find your local office by clicking here and contact them to learn of the specific services offered in your county. They can also help you get into touch with 4-H clubs, gardening clubs, bee keeper associations, and other organizations in your area.

9) USGS Disease Maps tracks disease outbreaks in the US on a county-by-county basis.

10) ProMED-mail - the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases - is an Internet-based reporting system dedicated to rapid global dissemination of information on outbreaks of infectious diseases and acute exposures to toxins that affect human health, including those in animals and in plants grown for food or animal feed. Electronic communications enable ProMED-mail to provide up-to-date and reliable news about threats to human, animal, and food plant health around the world, seven days a week.

11) RSOE EDIS - Emergency and Disaster Information Service - provides maps and information on man-made and natural disasters worldwide. It tracks almost everything - droughts, wildfires, hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanoes, chemical spills, biological hazards, nuclear events, and more.

12) Popular Mechanics has both a DIY Projects and a Home How To sections on their website, with lots of greats ideas, projects, and information.

13) The Maine Prepper You Tube Channel is one of my favorite You Tube channels, and has lots of videos relating to homesteading, personal security, and self-reliance. Note: Maine Prepper has since suspended channel while he deals with some health issues. Please keep him in your prayers.

14) The Patriot Nurse You Tube Channel addresses a variety of medical, health, and prepping issues.

15) Permaculture - Sustainable Farming, Ranching, Living - by Designing Ecosystems that Imitate Nature (link opens as a .pdf) is a six-page introduction to the concept of permaculture.

16) The Xerces Society is a insect conservation group which provides a variety of fact sheets and plant lists for promoting native bee and butterfly populations, which are VITAL to gardening and agriculture.

17) Fernando Aguirre's You Tube Channel is another great source of prepping information. He is the author of The Modern Survival Manual, and comes from the perspective of having lived through the financial collapse of Argentina and the fleeing the corrupt government (dictatorship) that followed.

18) The Drudge Report is a constantly updated collection of links to news stories in the mainstream and alternative news media. I include it here because an important part of self-reliance and being prepared is being aware of what is going on in the world around you.

Finally, I humbly suggest this website as a source of free information, ideas, and tips on self-reliance and preparedness. Please take the time to explore the variety of articles and information found here.


TimGamble.com is now on Facebook. Please "Like" us!

Tuesday, February 3, 2015

The Magna Carta

The Magna Carta (meaning "Great Charter") is a Charter of Liberties written in 1215, drafted by the Archbishop of Canterbury and signed by King John of England. It promised several measures of liberty, including church rights, protection for barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and certain restrictions on the medieval feudal system that existed at the time. Considered one of the first written statements of liberty in history, it is an early ancestor to America's founding documents. The following is a translation from the original Latin:

JOHN, by the grace of God King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Count of Anjou, to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justices, foresters, sheriffs, stewards, servants, and to all his officials and loyal subjects, Greeting.

KNOW THAT BEFORE GOD, for the health of our soul and those of our ancestors and heirs, to the honour of God, the exaltation of the holy Church, and the better ordering of our kingdom, at the advice of our reverend fathers Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, and cardinal of the holy Roman Church, Henry archbishop of Dublin, William bishop of London, Peter bishop of Winchester, Jocelin bishop of Bath and Glastonbury, Hugh bishop of Lincoln, Walter Bishop of Worcester, William bishop of Coventry, Benedict bishop of Rochester, Master Pandulf subdeacon and member of the papal household, Brother Aymeric master of the knighthood of the Temple in England, William Marshal earl of Pembroke, William earl of Salisbury, William earl of Warren, William earl of Arundel, Alan de Galloway constable of Scotland, Warin Fitz Gerald, Peter Fitz Herbert, Hubert de Burgh seneschal of Poitou, Hugh de Neville, Matthew Fitz Herbert, Thomas Basset, Alan Basset, Philip Daubeny, Robert de Roppeley, John Marshal, John Fitz Hugh, and other loyal subjects:

(1) FIRST, THAT WE HAVE GRANTED TO GOD, and by this present charter have confirmed for us and our heirs in perpetuity, that the English Church shall be free, and shall have its rights undiminished, and its liberties unimpaired. That we wish this so to be observed, appears from the fact that of our own free will, before the outbreak of the present dispute between us and our barons, we granted and confirmed by charter the freedom of the Church's elections — a right reckoned to be of the greatest necessity and importance to it — and caused this to be confirmed by Pope Innocent III. This freedom we shall observe ourselves, and desire to be observed in good faith by our heirs in perpetuity.

TO ALL FREE MEN OF OUR KINGDOM we have also granted, for us and our heirs for ever, all the liberties written out below, to have and to keep for them and their heirs, of us and our heirs:

(2) If any earl, baron, or other person that holds lands directly of the Crown, for military service, shall die, and at his death his heir shall be of full age and owe a 'relief', the heir shall have his inheritance on payment of the ancient scale of 'relief'. That is to say, the heir or heirs of an earl shall pay £100 for the entire earl's barony, the heir or heirs of a knight l00s. at most for the entire knight's 'fee', and any man that owes less shall pay less, in accordance with the ancient usage of 'fees'

(3) But if the heir of such a person is under age and a ward, when he comes of age he shall have his inheritance without 'relief' or fine.

(4) The guardian of the land of an heir who is under age shall take from it only reasonable revenues, customary dues, and feudal services. He shall do this without destruction or damage to men or property. If we have given the guardianship of the land to a sheriff, or to any person answerable to us for the revenues, and he commits destruction or damage, we will exact compensation from him, and the land shall be entrusted to two worthy and prudent men of the same 'fee', who shall be answerable to us for the revenues, or to the person to whom we have assigned them. If we have given or sold to anyone the guardianship of such land, and he causes destruction or damage, he shall lose the guardianship of it, and it shall be handed over to two worthy and prudent men of the same 'fee', who shall be similarly answerable to us.

(5) For so long as a guardian has guardianship of such land, he shall maintain the houses, parks, fish preserves, ponds, mills, and everything else pertaining to it, from the revenues of the land itself. When the heir comes of age, he shall restore the whole land to him, stocked with plough teams and such implements of husbandry as the season demands and the revenues from the land can reasonably bear.

(6) Heirs may be given in marriage, but not to someone of lower social standing. Before a marriage takes place, it shall be' made known to the heir's next-of-kin.

(7) At her husband's death, a widow may have her marriage portion and inheritance at once and without trouble. She shall pay nothing for her dower, marriage portion, or any inheritance that she and her husband held jointly on the day of his death. She may remain in her husband's house for forty days after his death, and within this period her dower shall be assigned to her.

(8) No widow shall be compelled to marry, so long as she wishes to remain without a husband. But she must give security that she will not marry without royal consent, if she holds her lands of the Crown, or without the consent of whatever other lord she may hold them of.

(9) Neither we nor our officials will seize any land or rent in payment of a debt, so long as the debtor has movable goods sufficient to discharge the debt. A debtor's sureties shall not be distrained upon so long as the debtor himself can discharge his debt. If, for lack of means, the debtor is unable to discharge his debt, his sureties shall be answerable for it. If they so desire, they may have the debtor's lands and rents until they have received satisfaction for the debt that they paid for him, unless the debtor can show that he has settled his obligations to them.

* (10) If anyone who has borrowed a sum of money from Jews dies before the debt has been repaid, his heir shall pay no interest on the debt for so long as he remains under age, irrespective of whom he holds his lands. If such a debt falls into the hands of the Crown, it will take nothing except the principal sum specified in the bond.

* (11) If a man dies owing money to Jews, his wife may have her dower and pay nothing towards the debt from it. If he leaves children that are under age, their needs may also be provided for on a scale appropriate to the size of his holding of lands. The debt is to be paid out of the residue, reserving the service due to his feudal lords. Debts owed to persons other than Jews are to be dealt with similarly.

* (12) No 'scutage' or 'aid' may be levied in our kingdom without its general consent, unless it is for the ransom of our person, to make our eldest son a knight, and (once) to marry our eldest daughter. For these purposes only a reasonable 'aid' may be levied. 'Aids' from the city of London are to be treated similarly.

(13) The city of London shall enjoy all its ancient liberties and free customs, both by land and by water. We also will and grant that all other cities, boroughs, towns, and ports shall enjoy all their liberties and free customs.

* (14) To obtain the general consent of the realm for the assessment of an 'aid' — except in the three cases specified above — or a 'scutage', we will cause the archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, and greater barons to be summoned individually by letter. To those who hold lands directly of us we will cause a general summons to be issued, through the sheriffs and other officials, to come together on a fixed day (of which at least forty days notice shall be given) and at a fixed place. In all letters of summons, the cause of the summons will be stated. When a summons has been issued, the business appointed for the day shall go forward in accordance with the resolution of those present, even if not all those who were summoned have appeared.

* (15) In future we will allow no one to levy an 'aid' from his free men, except to ransom his person, to make his eldest son a knight, and (once) to marry his eldest daughter. For these purposes only a reasonable 'aid' may be levied.

(16) No man shall be forced to perform more service for a knight's 'fee', or other free holding of land, than is due from it.

(17) Ordinary lawsuits shall not follow the royal court around, but shall be held in a fixed place.

(18) Inquests of novel disseisin, mort d'ancestor, and darrein presentment shall be taken only in their proper county court. We ourselves, or in our absence abroad our chief justice, will send two justices to each county four times a year, and these justices, with four knights of the county elected by the county itself, shall hold the assizes in the county court, on the day and in the place where the court meets.

(19) If any assizes cannot be taken on the day of the county court, as many knights and freeholders shall afterwards remain behind, of those who have attended the court, as will suffice for the administration of justice, having regard to the volume of business to be done.

(20) For a trivial offence, a free man shall be fined only in proportion to the degree of his offence, and for a serious offence correspondingly, but not so heavily as to deprive him of his livelihood. In the same way, a merchant shall be spared his merchandise, and a husbandman the implements of his husbandry, if they fall upon the mercy of a royal court. None of these fines shall be imposed except by the assessment on oath of reputable men of the neighbourhood.

(21) Earls and barons shall be fined only by their equals, and in proportion to the gravity of their offence.

(22) A fine imposed upon the lay property of a clerk in holy orders shall be assessed upon the same principles, without reference to the value of his ecclesiastical benefice.

(23) No town or person shall be forced to build bridges over rivers except those with an ancient obligation to do so.

(24) No sheriff, constable, coroners, or other royal officials are to hold lawsuits that should be held by the royal justices.

* (25) Every county, hundred, wapentake, and tithing shall remain at its ancient rent, without increase, except the royal demesne manors.

(26) If at the death of a man who holds a lay 'fee' of the Crown, a sheriff or royal official produces royal letters patent of summons for a debt due to the Crown, it shall be lawful for them to seize and list movable goods found in the lay 'fee' of the dead man to the value of the debt, as assessed by worthy men. Nothing shall be removed until the whole debt is paid, when the residue shall be given over to the executors to carry out the dead man s will. If no debt is due to the Crown, all the movable goods shall be regarded as the property of the dead man, except the reasonable shares of his wife and children.

* (27) If a free man dies intestate, his movable goods are to be distributed by his next-of-kin and friends, under the supervision of the Church. The rights of his debtors are to be preserved.

(28) No constable or other royal official shall take corn or other movable goods from any man without immediate payment, unless the seller voluntarily offers postponement of this.

(29) No constable may compel a knight to pay money for castle-guard if the knight is willing to undertake the guard in person, or with reasonable excuse to supply some other fit man to do it. A knight taken or sent on military service shall be excused from castle-guard for the period of this servlce.

(30) No sheriff, royal official, or other person shall take horses or carts for transport from any free man, without his consent.

(31) Neither we nor any royal official will take wood for our castle, or for any other purpose, without the consent of the owner.

(32) We will not keep the lands of people convicted of felony in our hand for longer than a year and a day, after which they shall be returned to the lords of the 'fees' concerned.

(33) All fish-weirs shall be removed from the Thames, the Medway, and throughout the whole of England, except on the sea coast.

(34) The writ called precipe shall not in future be issued to anyone in respect of any holding of land, if a free man could thereby be deprived of the right of trial in his own lord's court.

(35) There shall be standard measures of wine, ale, and corn (the London quarter), throughout the kingdom. There shall also be a standard width of dyed cloth, russett, and haberject, namely two ells within the selvedges. Weights are to be standardised similarly.

(36) In future nothing shall be paid or accepted for the issue of a writ of inquisition of life or limbs. It shall be given gratis, and not refused.

(37) If a man holds land of the Crown by 'fee-farm', 'socage', or 'burgage', and also holds land of someone else for knight's service, we will not have guardianship of his heir, nor of the land that belongs to the other person's 'fee', by virtue of the 'fee-farm', 'socage', or 'burgage', unless the 'fee-farm' owes knight's service. We will not have the guardianship of a man's heir, or of land that he holds of someone else, by reason of any small property that he may hold of the Crown for a service of knives, arrows, or the like.

(38) In future no official shall place a man on trial upon his own unsupported statement, without producing credible witnesses to the truth of it.

(39) No free man shall be seized or imprisoned, or stripped of his rights or possessions, or outlawed or exiled, or deprived of his standing in any other way, nor will we proceed with force against him, or send others to do so, except by the lawful judgement of his equals or by the law of the land.

(40) To no one will we sell, to no one deny or delay right or justice.

(41) All merchants may enter or leave England unharmed and without fear, and may stay or travel within it, by land or water, for purposes of trade, free from all illegal exactions, in accordance with ancient and lawful customs. This, however, does not apply in time of war to merchants from a country that is at war with us. Any such merchants found in our country at the outbreak of war shall be detained without injury to their persons or property, until we or our chief justice have discovered how our own merchants are being treated in the country at war with us. If our own merchants are safe they shall be safe too.

* (42) In future it shall be lawful for any man to leave and return to our kingdom unharmed and without fear, by land or water, preserving his allegiance to us, except in time of war, for some short period, for the common benefit of the realm. People that have been imprisoned or outlawed in accordance with the law of the land, people from a country that is at war with us, and merchants — who shall be dealt with as stated above — are excepted from this provision.

(43) If a man holds lands of any 'escheat' such as the 'honour' of Wallingford, Nottingham, Boulogne, Lancaster, or of other 'escheats' in our hand that are baronies, at his death his heir shall give us only the 'relief' and service that he would have made to the baron, had the barony been in the baron's hand. We will hold the 'escheat' in the same manner as the baron held it.

(44) People who live outside the forest need not in future appear before the royal justices of the forest in answer to general summonses, unless they are actually involved in proceedings or are sureties for someone who has been seized for a forest offence.

* (45) We will appoint as justices, constables, sheriffs, or other officials, only men that know the law of the realm and are minded to keep it well.

(46) All barons who have founded abbeys, and have charters of English kings or ancient tenure as evidence of this, may have guardianship of them when there is no abbot, as is their due.

(47) All forests that have been created in our reign shall at once be disafforested. River-banks that have been enclosed in our reign shall be treated similarly.

* (48) All evil customs relating to forests and warrens, foresters, warreners, sheriffs and their servants, or river-banks and their wardens, are at once to be investigated in every county by twelve sworn knights of the county, and within forty days of their enquiry the evil customs are to be abolished completely and irrevocably. But we, or our chief justice if we are not in England, are first to be informed.

* (49) We will at once return all hostages and charters delivered up to us by Englishmen as security for peace or for loyal service.

* (50) We will remove completely from their offices the kinsmen of Gerard de Athée, and in future they shall hold no offices in England. The people in question are Engelard de Cigogné', Peter, Guy, and Andrew de Chanceaux, Guy de Cigogné, Geoffrey de Martigny and his brothers, Philip Marc and his brothers, with Geoffrey his nephew, and all their followers.

* (51) As soon as peace is restored, we will remove from the kingdom all the foreign knights, bowmen, their attendants, and the mercenaries that have come to it, to its harm, with horses and arms.

* (52) To any man whom we have deprived or dispossessed of lands, castles, liberties, or rights, without the lawful judgement of his equals, we will at once restore these. In cases of dispute the matter shall be resolved by the judgement of the twenty-five barons referred to below in the clause for securing the peace (§ 61). In cases, however, where a man was deprived or dispossessed of something without the lawful judgement of his equals by our father King Henry or our brother King Richard, and it remains in our hands or is held by others under our warranty, we shall have respite for the period commonly allowed to Crusaders, unless a lawsuit had been begun, or an enquiry had been made at our order, before we took the Cross as a Crusader. On our return from the Crusade, or if we abandon it, we will at once render justice in full.

* (53) We shall have similar respite in rendering justice in connexion with forests that are to be disafforested, or to remain forests, when these were first a-orested by our father Henry or our brother Richard; with the guardianship of lands in another person's 'fee', when we have hitherto had this by virtue of a 'fee' held of us for knight's service by a third party; and with abbeys founded in another person's 'fee', in which the lord of the 'fee' claims to own a right. On our return from the Crusade, or if we abandon it, we will at once do full justice to complaints about these matters.

(54) No one shall be arrested or imprisoned on the appeal of a woman for the death of any person except her husband.

* (55) All fines that have been given to us unjustly and against the law of the land, and all fines that we have exacted unjustly, shall be entirely remitted or the matter decided by a majority judgement of the twenty-five barons referred to below in the clause for securing the peace (§ 61) together with Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, if he can be present, and such others as he wishes to bring with him. If the archbishop cannot be present, proceedings shall continue without him, provided that if any of the twenty-five barons has been involved in a similar suit himself, his judgement shall be set aside, and someone else chosen and sworn in his place, as a substitute for the single occasion, by the rest of the twenty-five.

(56) If we have deprived or dispossessed any Welshmen of lands, liberties, or anything else in England or in Wales, without the lawful judgement of their equals, these are at once to be returned to them. A dispute on this point shall be determined in the Marches by the judgement of equals. English law shall apply to holdings of land in England, Welsh law to those in Wales, and the law of the Marches to those in the Marches. The Welsh shall treat us and ours in the same way.

* (57) In cases where a Welshman was deprived or dispossessed of anything, without the lawful judgement of his equals, by our father King Henry or our brother King Richard, and it remains in our hands or is held by others under our warranty, we shall have respite for the period commonly allowed to Crusaders, unless a lawsuit had been begun, or an enquiry had been made at our order, before we took the Cross as a Crusader. But on our return from the Crusade, or if we abandon it, we will at once do full justice according to the laws of Wales and the said regions.

* (58) We will at once return the son of Llywelyn, all Welsh hostages, and the charters delivered to us as security for the peace.

* (59) With regard to the return of the sisters and hostages of Alexander, king of Scotland, his liberties and his rights, we will treat him in the same way as our other barons of England, unless it appears from the charters that we hold from his father William, formerly king of Scotland, that he should be treated otherwise. This matter shall be resolved by the judgement of his equals in our court.

(60) All these customs and liberties that we have granted shall be observed in our kingdom in so far as concerns our own relations with our subjects. Let all men of our kingdom, whether clergy or laymen, observe them similarly in their relations with their own men.

* (61) SINCE WE HAVE GRANTED ALL THESE THINGS for God, for the better ordering of our kingdom, and to allay the discord that has arisen between us and our barons, and since we desire that they shall be enjoyed in their entirety, with lasting strength, for ever, we give and grant to the barons the following security:

The barons shall elect twenty-five of their number to keep, and cause to be observed with all their might, the peace and liberties granted and confirmed to them by this charter.

If we, our chief justice, our officials, or any of our servants offend in any respect against any man, or transgress any of the articles of the peace or of this security, and the offence is made known to four of the said twenty-five barons, they shall come to us — or in our absence from the kingdom to the chief justice — to declare it and claim immediate redress. If we, or in our absence abroad the chiefjustice, make no redress within forty days, reckoning from the day on which the offence was declared to us or to him, the four barons shall refer the matter to the rest of the twenty-five barons, who may distrain upon and assail us in every way possible, with the support of the whole community of the land, by seizing our castles, lands, possessions, or anything else saving only our own person and those of the queen and our children, until they have secured such redress as they have determined upon. Having secured the redress, they may then resume their normal obedience to us.

Any man who so desires may take an oath to obey the commands of the twenty-five barons for the achievement of these ends, and to join with them in assailing us to the utmost of his power. We give public and free permission to take this oath to any man who so desires, and at no time will we prohibit any man from taking it. Indeed, we will compel any of our subjects who are unwilling to take it to swear it at our command.

If one of the twenty-five barons dies or leaves the country, or is prevented in any other way from discharging his duties, the rest of them shall choose another baron in his place, at their discretion, who shall be duly sworn in as they were.

In the event of disagreement among the twenty-five barons on any matter referred to them for decision, the verdict of the majority present shall have the same validity as a unanimous verdict of the whole twenty-five, whether these were all present or some of those summoned were unwilling or unable to appear.

The twenty-five barons shall swear to obey all the above articles faithfully, and shall cause them to be obeyed by others to the best of their power.

We will not seek to procure from anyone, either by our own efforts or those of a third party, anything by which any part of these concessions or liberties might be revoked or diminished. Should such a thing be procured, it shall be null and void and we will at no time make use of it, either ourselves or through a third party.

* (62) We have remitted and pardoned fully to all men any ill-will, hurt, or grudges that have arisen between us and our subjects, whether clergy or laymen, since the beginning of the dispute. We have in addition remitted fully, and for our own part have also pardoned, to all clergy and laymen any offences committed as a result of the said dispute between Easter in the sixteenth year of our reign (i.e. 1215) and the restoration of peace.

In addition we have caused letters patent to be made for the barons, bearing witness to this security and to the concessions set out above, over the seals of Stephen archbishop of Canterbury, Henry archbishop of Dublin, the other bishops named above, and Master Pandulf.

* (63) IT IS ACCORDINGLY OUR WISH AND COMMAND that the English Church shall be free, and that men in our kingdom shall have and keep all these liberties, rights, and concessions, well and peaceably in their fulness and entirety for them and their heirs, of us and our heirs, in all things and all places for ever.

Both we and the barons have sworn that all this shall be observed in good faith and without deceit. Witness the abovementioned people and many others.

Given by our hand in the meadow that is called Runnymede, between Windsor and Staines, on the fifteenth day of June in the seventeenth year of our reign (i.e. 1215: the new regnal year began on 28 May).

Source: British Library